- 1 Balanced diet
- 2 Essential elements of a balanced diet:
- 2.1 Protein:
- 2.2 Fat
- 2.3 Carbohydrates:
- 2.4 Mineral salts
- 2.4.1 Calcium:
- 2.4.2 Phosphorus:
- 2.4.3 Potassium:
- 2.4.4 Iron
- 2.4.5 Sodium
- 2.4.6 Chlorine
- 2.4.7 copper
- 2.4.8 Iodine
- 2.4.9 Cobalt
- 2.4.10 Vitamins
- 2.4.11 Vitamin A
- 2.4.12 Vitamin B group
- 2.4.13 Vitamin B1
- 2.4.14 Vitamin B2
- 2.4.15 Vitamin B3
- 2.4.16 Vitamin B5
- 2.4.17 Vitamin B6
- 2.4.18 Vitamin B7
- 2.4.19 Vitamin B11
- 2.4.20 Vitamin B12
- 2.4.21 Vitamin C
- 2.4.22 Vitamin D
- 2.4.23 Vitamin E
- 2.4.24 Vitamin K
- 2.4.25 Water
Those food items in which all the ingredients/elements necessary for maintaining and increasing the physical capacity and functional activity of the human being are available are called a balanced diet.
A diet that provides the body with adequate amounts of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fats, and all the necessary nutrients is called a balanced diet.
Essential elements of a balanced diet:
There are mainly 06 essential elements of a balanced diet which are as follows:
- Mineral salts.
Protein is the main component of protoplasm which is made up of amino acids and is responsible for body growth, production of protoplasm, and repair of damaged tissues. A total of 20 amino acids are required for the human body, out of which 10 amino acids are produced inside the body and the remaining 10 amino acids are produced through food. Proteins provide 15 percent of the energy required by the human body. Oxidation of 01 gram of protein gives 4.1 calories of energy.
Sources of Protein:
Important sources of protein are soybeans, pulses, eggs, meat, fish, etc.
About 43.2 percent protein is found in soybean, about 30 percent protein in pulses, 12.1 percent protein in wheat, 13 percent protein in egg, 21.4 percent protein in meat, and 16.6 percent protein is found in fish.
Proteins called albumin are found in serum and eggs, globin protein in the blood, gliadin protein in wheat, casein protein in milk, keratin protein in horn, and hemocyanin in the blood of invertebrates.
Protein deficiency diseases
Kwashiorkor: This disease occurs in children, in which the arms and legs become weak and the stomach comes out.
Marasmus: This disease occurs in children in which the muscles become loose.
Main functions of proteins:
- They take part in the formation of cells, protoplasm, and tissues.
- Acts as biocatalysts and biological regulators and controls the development of genetic traits.
- Body growth, production of protoplasm, and repair of damaged tissues.
Fat is made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Oxidation of fats gives fatty acids and glycerol. Fat accumulation occurs in adipose tissue. On oxidation of 01 gram of fat, about 9.3 calories of energy is obtained. Fats provide 35% of the energy required by the human body. Fats are synthesized in the human body in the mitochondria.
Sources of Fat:
Ghee, vegetable oil, almonds, cashew nuts, meat, fish, gram, etc. About 58.9 percent fat is found in almonds, 19.5 percent fat in soybean, 40 percent fat in peanut, 5.6 percent fat in gram, and 1.4 percent fat in fish.
Functions of Fats:
- Provides energy to the body.
- Protects various parts of the body from injuries.
Effect of fat deficiency and excess on the body:
Due to the lack of fat in the human body, physical development stops, the skin becomes dry, and weight decreases. Due to excess of fat, the body becomes fat, blood pressure increases, obesity comes and heart disease occurs.
Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in which the ratio of hydrogen and oxygen is 2:1. 4.1 calories of energy are obtained from 01 gram of carbohydrate. About 50 percent of the total energy required by the human body comes from carbohydrates.
There are three types of carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
Monosaccharides are mainly found in milk, honey, and grapes. Honey sugar is called fructose, milk sugar is called galactose, and grape sugar is called glucose.
A molecule of disaccharides is formed by the combination of two monosaccharide molecules. The main sources of disaccharides are milk, beet, carrot, sugarcane, etc.
Potatoes, cereals, etc. are the main sources of polysaccharides.
Main sources of carbohydrates
There are wheat, rice, sugarcane, groundnut, etc. About 79.2 percent of carbohydrates are found in wheat, 46.1 percent in groundnut, 78.2 percent in rice, 59.2 percent in gram.
Functions of Carbohydrates:
Formation of the outer skeleton, vitamin C, and nucleic acids.
To meet the energy needs of the body.
Mineral salts are the inorganic components of human food that control the metabolic activities of the body. The following mineral salts are mainly required by the human body:
The main sources of calcium are milk, ghee, green vegetables, eggs, carrots, oranges, etc. The main function of calcium is to build the skeleton of the human body, stimulate the nerves and help in blood clotting.
Due to the lack of calcium, the human skeleton does not develop and a disease called osteoporosis occurs in the bones.
The main sources of phosphorus are milk, eggs, green vegetables, fish, etc. The main function of phosphorus is to control fat metabolism, assist in the formation of proteins and nucleic acids, assist in the formation of the skeletal system, blood, and teeth. Due to the lack of phosphorus, the bones become flexible and the gums of the teeth become weak.
It is found in all vegetables. Its function is to control the osmotic pressure in the human body. The deficiency of potassium leads to a disease called hypokalemia, the heart does not function properly and mental balance is disturbed.
The main sources of iron are green vegetables, spinach, bathua, sugarcane, banana, etc. The main function of iron is to make red blood cells. Iron deficiency causes a disease called anemia.
The main source of sodium is salt. Water controls sodium in the human body. The deficiency of sodium leads to dehydration in the human body and a disease called hyponatremia occurs.
The main source of chlorine is salt. It controls the balance of acid, alkali, and water in the human body.
Copper is a type of blood component in the human body that participates in the formation of blood and enzymes. Due to its deficiency, the balance of the human body gets disturbed.
The main sources of iodine are iodized salt, water, and sea salt. Iodine is found in the thyroid gland in the human body in the hormone thyroxine. Iodine deficiency causes a disease called goiter.
Cobalt is the main component of vitamin B12 which aids in the formation of blood in the human body. The deficiency of cobalt causes a disease called anemia.
It is an organic chemical. It was invented by Funk in 1911 AD. It is also called the protective substance of the body. Vitamins are of two types on the basis of solubility: water-soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins.
Water-soluble vitamins are vitamins B and C.
Fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, and K.
Vitamin A is also called the growth-promoting and anti-infection vitamin. The chemical name of vitamin A is retinol.
Main sources: Milk, butter, eggs, fish, oil, spinach, carrots, etc.
Deficiency diseases- night blindness, xerophthalmia, dermatosis, slow aging, stones in the body, whiteness in the eyes.
Vitamin B group
There are 11 groups of vitamin B, of which 08 are the main ones. These are B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B11, and B12
Chemical name- Thiamine.
Main sources- Grain peel, milk, lentils, and liver, etc.
Function: Metabolizes carbohydrates.
Deficiency diseases- Beri-Beri disease in humans, Polyneuritis disease in animals.
Chemical name- Riboflavin.
Main sources – Wheat, fruits, vegetables, liver, and meat, etc.
Deficiency disease- pellagra or skin disease.
Chemical name – Niacin.
Main sources– Meat, groundnut, tomato, leafy vegetables.
Deficiency disease – pellagra (ringworm), 4-D syndrome.
Chemical name- Pantothenic acid.
Main sources- Meat, milk, groundnut, tomato, sugarcane, etc.
Diseases due to deficiency- retardation, graying of hair.
Chemical name- Pyridoxine.
Main sources- liver, meat. Milk, fish, peas, etc.
Function: Regulates the metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.
Deficiency diseases- anemia (anemia) and skin diseases.
Chemical name– Biotin.
Main sources– Meat, egg, liver, milk, etc.
Deficiency diseases- paralysis, hair fall.
Chemical name- Folic acid.
Main sources– Lentils, liver, green vegetables, eggs, etc.
Deficiency diseases- Anemia, dysentery.
Chemical name- Cyanocobalamin.
Main sources – meat, milk, eggs, fruits, liver, etc.
Function: Synthesizes nucleic acids and nucleoproteins.
Deficiency diseases- Anemia, Panduro.
An element called cobalt is found in this vitamin.
Chemical name- Ascorbic acid.
Main sources- Lemon, Amla, Orange, Tomato, Masami, Tamarind, etc.
Function- Increases the immunity of the body.
Deficiency disease- Scurvy disease.
Vitamin C is found the most in amla.
Chemical name- Colciferol.
Main sources – Sun rays, butter, eggs, fish oil, liver, etc.
Function – Strengthens bones and teeth.
Deficiency diseases – Rickets in children, osteomalacia in adults.
Chemical name – Tocopherol.
Main sources – Soybean oil and lettuce leaves, rice husk oil, cottonseed oil, etc.
Functions- Development of reproductive organs, protection of skin, and protection of enzymes present in cells.
Deficiency disease – impotence.
Chemical name- Naphthaquinone.
Main sources – Green vegetables, carrots, eggs, etc.
Water is a very important component of the protoplasm in the human body. 65 to 75% of the human body is water, which is unevenly distributed in different parts. Human urine contains 95 percent, blood plasma 92 percent, blood 83 percent, muscles 76 percent, bones 33 percent, and kidneys 80 percent water. The lethal threshold begins when the human body dehydrates 12% of the water.
- Controlling the temperature of the human body by sweat and objects.
- To carry out the work of convection of food items and mineral salts.
- Excretion works by removing substances from the body through the excretory organs.
- Benefits of a balanced diet:
- Bodyweight is controlled.
- The risk of diseases is less.
- The body gets energy.
- Physical and mental health.
- Deep sleep comes.
- Body tissues are properly formed.
- The immunity of the body increases.